Botanical Survey Updates
Part 1: CC Values
FQAI score: 17.23
- Pawpaw (Asimina triloba)- CC = 6
- Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis)- CC=4
- Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica)- CC= 3
- Black walnut (Juglans nigra )- CC=5
- Garden phlox (Phlox paniculata)- CC=2
- Swamp rose mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos)- CC=4
- Black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta)- CC=1
- White heath aster (Symphyotrichum ericoides)- CC=2
- Woodland sunflower (Helianthus divaricatus)- CC=4
- American basswood (Tilia americana)- CC=6
- Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia)- CC= 2
- Silver maple (Acer saccharinum)- CC=3
- Poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans)- CC=1
- Black willow (Salix nigra )- CC=2
- Riddell’s goldenrod (Solidago ridellii)- CC=8
- White snakeroot (Ageratina altissima)- CC= 3
- Red oak (Quercus rubra)- CC=6
- Boxelder (Acer negundo)- CC=3
- American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis)- CC=7
- Hophornbean (Ostrya virginiana)- CC=5
Four highest CC
Riddell’s goldenrod (Solidago ridellii) – CC=8
The bright yellow color is a helpful feature when identifying goldenrod, as well as the numerous, long pointed leaves on the stem. The blunt and rounded buds are also a key feature that helps to distinguish Riddell’s goldenrod apart from other types of goldenrod. Riddell’s goldenrod is especially attractive to bees and flowers through late September (Native Plant Facts).
American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) – CC=7
Sycamore tree leaves slightly resemble maple leaves in their shape. They are simple and palmate, with coarse teeth on the margin. They are a light green color, turning yellow or brown in the fall. The name “Sycamore” means “sick” or “sick appearance.” This is fitting because the trees have flaky bark that can sometimes lead people to believe the tree has an illness of some sort (Speakingtree).
Pawpaw (Asimina triloba)- CC = 6
Pawpaw trees have very large, simple leaves. They are longer than they are wide and come to a point at the end. They produce large, yellow/green colored fruits that are edible to humans. Pawpaw fruits are Ohio’s state fruits, and can be commonly found in Ohio woodland areas (Farm and Dairy).
Red oak (Quercus rubra)- CC=6
Red oak trees can reach a height of approximately 60-90 feet once at the point of maturity. They have lobed leaves, that are pointed on the tips. The leaves are rather large and can reach nearly 10 inches in length! Red oak wood is a hard wood that is commonly used for furniture and house flooring (Illinois State Museum).
Four Lowest CC
Black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta)- CC=1
Black-eyed Susans earn their name from their black centers. They bloom primarily between June and October, often in clusters. They are resistant to drought, which make them an easy gardening plant. Another key point for identification, is their bright yellow petals. Black-eyed Susans are some of the first to grow in majorly damaged areas, such as areas affected by fires. This behavior earns them the name “pioneer plant (OSU Plant Pathology).”
Poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) – CC=1
Poison ivy is a plant that often causes irritation when it’s oils make contact with the skin. It is found in leaflets of three. The leaves are lobed, often more on one side than on the other. It can be found growing close to the ground or vining up around tree trunks. Poison ivy often changes color from being red in spring, to green in summer, to a yellow/orange/red mixture in the fall (Northwell Health).
Garden phlox (Phlox paniculata) – CC=2
Garden phlox grow in clusters, just a few inches above the ground. They have a slightly sweet odor to them and bloom between July and September. They are seen in a variety of shades, including light purple, pink, and red. Garden phlox are native to the eastern and central U.S., and were at one point exported to Europe (Garden Design).
Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) – CC= 2
Virginia creeper is a vining plant that is most often found winding itself around trees. Virginia creeper can also be commonly found as a ground cover vine. In early fall, the leaves are known for turning a bright red color. It can cause irritation to the skin for some people when they touch or come into contact with it. Virginia creeper berries are toxic to humans, but attract birds (Lady Bird Johnson Wildlife Center).
Part 2: Invasive Plants
Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii)
Amur honeysuckle is an invasive bush type plant that can be spotted very commonly in Ohio. It has dark green leaves that are oppositely arranged and taper to a point at their ends. The bark of the bush often has deep grooves within it, making it easily identifiable. It flowers in the spring, with white flowers that cover the plant. Amur honeysuckle was originally introduced from China and Korea (Go Botany).
Common reed grass (Phragmites australis)
Reed grasses are most often found waterside, whether that be on the edge of a lake, stream, fen, or marsh. These reeds can reach heights of 5 to 17 inches tall, and have feathery clusters at the top of their slender, and stiff stems. The reeds have been harvested for years for various uses including arrows and basket weaving (Britannica).
Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum)
The leaves of Japanese knotweed are broad and ovately shaped. It blooms very small white flowers between the months of August and September. Japanese knotweed can grow nearly 15 feet tall and it recognizable by its “bamboo-like” stems. It spreads very quickly and thrives in disturbed areas. Japanese knotweed was introduced from eastern Asia back in the 1800s (NY Invasive Species).
Japanese Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica)
Japanese honeysuckle is a very fast growing plant that winds itself around other plants. By doing so, it can kill the other plants, shrubs, and saplings it twines itself around. The leaves are oppositely arranged and entire on the margin. Japanese honeysuckle was introduced on Long Island, New York in 1806 (Invasive.org)
Part 3: Four Substrate Associated Species
Red-cedar (Juniperus virginiana)
Found in drier limestone rich and limy areas, where the limestone is generally found just beneath the ground, (Forsyth, 1971).
Blue ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata)
Present in high lime and limestone areas, according to Forsyth (Forsyth, 1971).
Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana)
Generally found in limestone or limy substrates, according to Forsyth (Forsyth, 1971).
Redbud (Cersis canadensis)
Forsyth says these are present in limestone and high lime substrates (Forsyth, 1971).